After the explosion of the â€œ8Â·12â€ dangerous goods warehouse in Tianjin Port, all walks of life can be described as â€œtalking about cyanosisâ€. I feel cyanide is far away from us. I think cyanide is very mysterious. Is cyanide really mysterious? Let's get to know each other.
Cyanide refers specifically to compounds bearing cyano (CN) and is generally classified as inorganic cyanide and organic cyanide. The cyanide, which is generally known, is inorganic cyanide, and potassium cyanide and sodium cyanide are common.
As a highly toxic chemical, it can be quickly absorbed through the skin, eyes or gastrointestinal tract. Less than 35mg/kg, oral administration of 150-250mg for adults can cause sudden death. Although cyanide is a highly toxic chemical, cyanide does not cause ingestion with its characteristic odor, nor does it allow the skin to come into contact with it for a long time. Even if the skin is directly exposed to cyanide, it can be washed off immediately with water. If sodium cyanide is accidentally taken, it will directly induce vomiting. Therefore, hydrocyanic acid poisoning also has its specific conditions and has great limitations. In addition, it is not poisoned by eating cyanide. As long as there is no problem within the content range, please refer to the national standards for cyanide in food and drinking water:
Cyanide is very toxic, but poisoning can also be used in a variety of ways for first aid, and there are special effects, so cyanide poisoning does not mean death. In addition, the human body has a strong detoxification function for CN-, and cyanide is a non-accumulative poison. When a small amount of exogenous cyanide that does not cause a toxic dose enters the body, it can be quickly converted into non-toxic or low-toxic substances.
Cyanide is mainly used for gold extraction, electroplating and chemical synthesis. Cyanide can synthesize common drugs and food additives such as penicillin, vitamin B6, folic acid, guanine, caffeine, etc.; common pesticides glyphosate, fenvalerate, paraquat, atrazine, indole, etc.; common Dyes or pigments indigo, hualan, fluorescent whitening agents, etc.; common amino acids: methionine, alanine, glycine and the like.
Most of the industry uses light oil or natural gas synthesis, and can also be produced by acrylonitrile by-product, but it is not industrial production to produce cyanide, which is also widely found in nature. For example, cyanide in plants is found in seeds such as bitter almond, peach kernel, coix seed, linseed, bayberry kernel, plum kernel, cherry kernel, apple kernel, etc. Content of cyanide in plant: bitter almond: 3.71g/100g , Li Ziren, Coix Seed, Cherry Kernel, Yangmeiren, Ginkgo: 2.67Î¼g/100g, Meiren: 4.33Î¼g/100g, Broad Bean: 300Î¼g/100g, White Plum: 11.6mg/100g, Green Peel: 10.18mg/100g, Flaxseed: 38g/100g, Ginkgo seed: 523Î¼g/100g, cassava leaf: 20.27ï½ž28.48mg/100g, cassava block: 4.68ï½ž9.26mg/100g, sorghum leaf and corn seedling content is 38-70mg/100g.
Cyanide is also commonly found in soils and decreases with increasing soil depth, with a content of 0.003-0.130 mg/kg. Cyanide in natural soils is mainly derived from soil humus. Humus is a complex class of organic compounds whose core is polymerized from polyphenols and contains a certain amount of nitrogen compounds. Under the action of soil microbes, cyanide and phenol can be formed, so the background content of cyanide in the soil is closely related to the content of organic matter.
Breathing, drinking water, contact with soil or eating foods containing cyanide, smoking or inhaling smoke from fires is the main way for cyanide to enter the body. In addition, cyanide-containing air or natural food near the hazardous waste treatment plant. When cyanide-containing foods are used, it is also possible to get cyanide into our bodies.
Natural water has a strong self-purification effect on cyanide. When a small amount of cyanide enters the water body, the microorganisms in the water can destroy the low concentration of cyanide, and the cyanide is converted into carbonate and ammonia by biooxidation to transform it into a non-toxic substance. At the same time, it consumes part of dissolved oxygen in the water. Therefore, the self-cleaning process of cyanide in surface water is quite rapid and does not accumulate.
Because nature has a strong purification effect on cyanide pollution, it is generally difficult for exogenous cyanide to accumulate in the environment and the body. Only under certain conditions (accident discharge, high concentration and continuous pollution), when the amount of cyanide pollution exceeds the purification capacity of the environment, it can remain and accumulate in the environment, thus posing a potential hazard to humans and organisms. However, these cyanides are easily degraded. For example, when the aqueous sodium cyanide solution is above 50 Â° C, an irreversible hydrolysis reaction will occur to form sodium formate and ammonia. The higher the temperature, the faster the rate of hydrolysis. This property is often used in the industry to treat cyanide-containing wastewater. In addition, high concentrations of cyanide can be degraded to a safe concentration within 5 hours using 5 times the amount of chlorine or hydrogen peroxide, so cyanide is easily degraded or eliminated.
Cyanide is not mysterious. It is not only far away from us, but also by our side, and has always been with us. Only when we know it correctly will we not feel so terrible. Only knowing will prevent it.
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